18th JAMCO Online International Symposium
January 16 to February 28, 2009
Public-Service Broadcasts of Asian Countries
Presentation 4: The Future of Public Broadcasting in the Philippines
To this date, there is no public broadcasting in the Philippines. Efforts to lobby for an alternative broadcast channel to complement the commercially-dominated Philippine broadcast media did not succeed for reasons cited by Rosario-Braid:1
- 1-1 Lack of political will by national government to give up government media,
- 1-2 Uncoordinated advocacy efforts,
- 1-3 Low priority given by the legislature, and
- 1-4 Absence of a feasibility study.
In the absence of a public broadcasting service, the Philippines has the Philippine Broadcasting Service – Bureau of Broadcast Services (PBS-BBS) that operates radio stations nationwide and the National Broadcasting or Peoples Television Network, Inc. (PTNI) that operates television stations nationwide, both directly under the Office of the President. Vis-a-Vis these government services are two giant commercial broadcasting networks that dominate the countrys broadcasting industry: ABS CBN Broadcasting Corporation and Global Media Arts Network, Inc. (GMA7) both, claiming to broadcast programs “in the service of the public.”
Also, unique in the Philippine set-up are community radio broadcasting service that operates in the country as an alternative to commercial and non-commercial broadcasting media primarily aimed at people participation and empowerment.
2. The Proposed Philippine Public Broadcasting System (PPBS) Act of 2007
2-1 General Provisions
Senate Bill 325 entitled, ACT ESTABLISHING THE PHILIPPINE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES is also known as the Philippine Public Broadcasting System (PPBS) Act of 2007. The bill was filed on July 2, 2007 and was introduced by Senator Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada during the first regular session of the Fourteenth Congress of the Republic of the Philippines.
This bill proposes the establishment of a public broadcasting system as an alternative to the commercial broadcasting system in the Philippines.2
As of August 7, 2007, the bill had undergone First Reading and had been referred to the committee on public information and mass media, government corporations and public enterprises, ways and means, and finance. 3
2-2 Proposed program standards
The Consultative Body is tasked to formulate the Code of Standards inclusive of the following aspects: presentation of news, educational programs, agriculture and livelihood programs, promotion of women and youth issues, childrens programs, promotion of Filipino talents, and public affairs programs, services and announcements.”4
2-3 Proposed rationalization of existing broadcasting stations
Upon approval of this act, PPBS shall rationalize and reorganize existing government-owned or controlled broadcasting stations to fulfill the mandate of this act and that, all powers, functions, assets, capital, accounts, contracts, and facilities under the Peoples Television (PTV 4), and, the various radio stations under the auspices of the Bureau of Broadcast, are hereby transferred to the PPBS, and, the agencies concerned shall stand abolished on the date the PPBS shall begin its operations.5
3. Current status of Philippine Broadcasting Media
3-1 Industry Overview
Radio, followed by television, has been the primary source of entertainment and information among the people in the Philippines. Radio reaches 85% of the households while television reaches 74%.6 AM stations mainly broadcasts in Filipino and the regional languages such as Cebuano, Hiligaynon, and Waray among others. Television predominantly broadcast in Filipino and English. To date, there are a total of 382 AM stations, 628 FM stations, 247 TV stations, 29 TV relay, 2 pay-per-view TV, and 1,501 cable stations in the country. 7
The chart below8 shows the increasing number of radio (both AM and FM) and television services in the country from 1998 to 2007.
The major broadcasting networks include major television networks: ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, Associated Broadcasting Company, and GMA Network Inc. The government-owned networks are Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation, National Broadcasting Network and Radio Philippines Network. Other TV networks include: ACQ-Kingdom Broadcasting Network, Progressive Broadcasting Corporation, Q (television network), Radio Mindanao Network, Rajah Broadcasting Network, Southern Broadcasting Network, Studio 23 and ZOE Broadcasting Network.
3-2 Competitive Landscape
Just like the US model of broadcasting, advertising, program popularity, and consumer demographics drive demand. The profitability of individual companies depends on advertising volume, programming mix, and efficient operations.9 Giant media companies namely, ABS CBN and GMA7, dominate the local broadcasting market: ABS has a total annual net income of Ph 19.891 billion (as of 2007), 10 as compared to GMAs Ph 10.83 billion11.
3-3 Categories of broadcast media
The broadcast media can be categorized into commercial, non-commercial, government and community.
- Commercial-these are private corporations/associations, private schools, civic institutions or independent business entrepreneurs driven by advertising and business;
- Non-Commercial-these are civic or religious organizations with specific target audiences for their programs;
- Government-these are government-owned and operated media that serve as the official arm of the Philippine government. Programs need not necessarily rate and compete with the commercial stations;
- Community-A unique set-up in the Philippines operated by independent providers who operate a low-power transmitter that produces information and educational programs whose objective is to empower the people.
3-4 Regulatory Bodies
There is no body of laws in the Philippines that may be called Media Laws. While there is the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC), an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Transportation and Communications which is responsible for supervising, adjudicating and controlling all telecommunications services throughout the Philippines, its powers are limited only to the allocation of radio and TV frequencies and do not extend to supervision over content.12
Founded in 1972 during the Martial Law days, the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (Association of Broadcasters of the Philippines) or KBP was meant to support the government in developing the masses, through the massive dissemination of broadcast information and development broadcasting. At present, KBP primarily seeks to advance and sustain the highest standards of quality in the broadcast industry through the exercise of self-regulation. The organization is composed of owners and operators of radio and television stations.
4.The Philippine Broadcasting Service – Bureau of Broadcast Services (PBS-BBS)
4-1 Early beginnings
Attempts to establish public broadcasting services in the country date back to September 1946, (two months after the Philippines got its independence from the United States) when the US turned over the government-established KZFM (now DZFM) to the Philippine government. Thus, the Philippine Broadcasting Service (PBS), the first broadcasting organization in the country, was established.
DZFM was first operated by the Department of Foreign Affairs until it was transferred to the Radio Broadcasting Board (RBB) created by President Manuel Roxas on September 3, 1947. The RBB, however, was abolished in January 1952 and the Philippine Information Council (PIC) assumed the functions of RBB that included the operation of DZFM. From1952 until 1969, the PBS and DZFM were placed under the Office of the President of the Philippines. PBS then was renamed the Bureau of Broadcast (BB). Significantly, public broadcasting in the Philippines was thus represented by the BB and the NMPC, and catered to the educational and cultural needs of its audiences while endeavoring to keep it entertained with fare from indigenous material. Public service features were the keystone of its programs.13
BBC and NMPC were then placed under the Office of Media Affairs (OMA) in 1978.
In 1986 during the term of then President Corazon Aquino, the Office of Media Affairs, NMPC, and the BB were abolished. In their stead , was established a plan, a vision, for one, single government broadcasting organization that would not be an echo device for the government, or much less, for any one man, but would instead dedicate itself to the service of the people through honest, balanced, and meaningful broadcasting. That lay the blueprint and ground work of the Bureau of Broadcast Services (BBS).14
4-2 Current status of PBS-BBS
The BBS is a radio network that started its operation in 1986 with 14 stations, each having an average of one-kilowatt power rating. At present, it is a network of 34 radio stations nationwide with an average power output rating of 10-kilowatts.15 Of the 34 stations, four radio stations are in Metro Manila namely, DZRB Radyo ng Bayan, DWBR Business Radio, DZRM, and DZFM Sports Radio, while 30 are provincial stations. The PBS-BBS provides news information and public affairs programs on development initiatives and activities of the Philippine government, namely, government activities, projects, priorities, including presidential pronouncements, statements, and decisions, Senate and House goings-on, and virtually every event in the various agencies and instrumentalities of government that redounds to the welfare of the people. 16
In terms of audience reach, whereas in 1986, government radio reached only 25% of the total population, now its reach is 50%.17
News and public affairs have been the centerpiece of the programming operations of PBS-BBS. Cultural and educational features complete a well-balanced fare for its audience.
5. The National Broadcasting Network (NBN-4) through People’s Television Network, Inc. (PTNI)
5-1 Early beginnings
In 1974, GTV-4 was the only government station. It was renamed Maharlika Broadcasting System, Inc. (MBS) in 1980. It then became the Peoples Television 4 (PTV4) in 1986. President Corazon C. Aquino signed Republic Act 7306 Republic Act on March 26, 1992, making the PTV Network a government corporation known as People’s Television Network, Inc (PTNI) which was mandated to give its viewers a balanced mix of news, public affairs, educational, cultural and sports programs.
The network was able to improve its facilities through a grant from the French Government worth FF74.2 million (P28 M) in the form of transmitter facilities, studio, video and audio equipment. In June 1992, President Fidel Ramos gave a one-time equity funding from the Government. Since then, PTNI has been operating on its revenues.
5-2 Current status of NBN-PTNI
Since 1992, PTNI has used the PALAPA C2 satellite system to transmit programs nationwide. The network now reaches 85 % of the countrys population with its 32 provincial stations. 18
The name National Broadcasting Network (NBN) came about when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo put the network under new management on July 16, 2001. And so, while the corporate name People’s Television Network, Inc. (PTNI) has been retained, NBN remains to be the TV station of the government that operates the television stations nationwide: the Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC13), Radio Philippines Network (RPN 9), and, National Broadcasting Network (NBN-4)
PTNI boasts of itself as the station that earned the following awards: Hall of Fame Award for Best Station, Most Balanced Programming in 1987 and the Catholic Mass Media Awards, and other pioneering and award-winning educational, cultural and public service programs such as Tele-aralan ng Kakayahan, Ating Alamin, Batibot, For Art’s Sake, Coast to Coast and Paco Park Presents.
The educational program called Continuing Education Via Television (CONSTEL) has been used in teacher training by the Regional and Divisional Leader Schools of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) and in Teacher Education Institutions of the Commission on Higher Education. This program aims at upgrading teaching skills of elementary and secondary teachers of Science and English was institutionalized by DECS.
PTNI has also been covering major international sports competitions, particularly the Olympic Games.
Filipinos overseas are reached through the NBN World that was launched on February 19, 2003 in cooperation with the Television and Radio Broadcasting Service (TARBS). NBN is now seen in Australia, North America and the Asia Pacific using AGUILA 2 for its satellite transmission.
On July 16, 2001, under the new management appointed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, PTNI adopted the name National Broadcasting Network (NBN) carrying a new slogan “One People. One Nation. One Vision”.
The programming of PTNI is 11 % News, 13% Public Affairs, 16% Educational, 19% Sports, 36% Entertainment, and 5% Religious.19 Some of the PTNI public affairs programs are Tinig ng Bayan (Voice of the People), Headline, Talakayan sa Makati (Forum in Makati), Woman Watch, Dighay Buhay and Congress Forum. Public service and educational programs are: Damayan, Infoline, Tele-Aralan and Ating Alamin.
6. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation
6-1 Company profile20
ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, also known as Alto Broadcasting System-Chronicle Broadcasting Network, is the largest broadcasting network in the country with its flagship television networks Channel 2 and Studio 23. Channel 2 reaches over 95% of the country through more than 30 affiliate stations (23 of which are company-owned and operated), while Studio 23 is seen by about half the population. ABS-CBN also operates a portfolio of 20 radio stations.
ABS-CBN is owned by owned by the Lopez family through the Lopez Group of Companies.
ABS CBN operates in the Philippines, United States of America, Middle East, Europe and Australia and several other countries via The Filipino Channel or TFC. Its provincial network takes care of airing most of the shows in each region outside Metro Manila.
The programs on the television channels of ABS CBN Broadcasting Network are news and current affairs, Philippine drama, sitcoms, foreign shows, entertainment, news and talk shows, game shows, educational shows, as well as reality and variety shows, apart from broadcast television specials such as regional festivals, concerts, cultural events, and sports events.
6-3 Company slogan
ABS CBN proudly boasts of programs that affirm its social responsibility. The slogan, “In the Service of the Filipino”, with the tagline, Kapamilya (literally, a member of the family) has been carried out through the work of the ABS-CBN Foundation.
7. GLOBAL MEDIA ARTS Network, Inc. (GMA 7)
7-1 Company profile
GMA Network, Inc. (Channel 7) is another leading media broadcasting network in the Philippines, owned by the Duavit, Jimenez and Gozon family.
In Metro Manila, it uses terrestrial VHF Channel 7 (DZBB-TV), Channel 11 (DZOE-TV, leased from ZOE Broadcasting Network, operated by Q) and terrestrial UHF Channel 27 (DWDB-TV).
The corporate profile shows that GMA Network has 46 Very High Frequency (VHF) television stations nationwide that include its flagship station in Metro Manila, originating stations in Cebu, Iloilo, Davao and Dagupan, three Ultra High Frequency (UHF) stations and one affiliate station.
GMA-7 also operates a network of 24 radio stations and one minority-owned radio station. DZBB on the AM band and DWLS on the FM band are its anchor radio stations. GMA reaches out to Filipinos abroad through Its international channel known as GMA Pinoy TV, currently available in the United States, Canada, Japan, Singapore, Guam, Saipan, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the British Indian Ocean Territory of Diego Garcia, 16 countries in the Middle East, 11 countries in North Africa and 49 countries in Europe.
GMAs programs consist of the following: news and current affairs shows, documentaries, dramas, dubbed foreign serials, entertainment news and talk shows, game shows, variety shows, musicals, sitcoms, children’s shows, anime shows, fantasy and reality shows.
7-3 Company slogan
The companys slogan is “Proud to be Kapuso (one in heart).” GMA-7 also manifests its social responsibility and commitment to public service through community projects that GMA Kapuso Foundation and Kapwa Ko, Mahal Ko Foundation undertake.
8. The Rivalry between GMA and ABS CBN
Before the revival of ABS-CBN, GMA 7 was the network leader in the country which then used to air foreign shows. Newscast were in English. There were no movie premieres and rarely were there police and crime stories aired. Public affairs were not politically and socially-oriented. If the programs did not rate, earnings from the news programs subsidized the news and public affairs programs.
When the Lopezes rebuilt the network in 1986, the potential for targeting the widest-possible consensus resulted in new formats of news and public affairs programs that practically were a refined version of the US programs: the tabloid-type of journalism that spiced up the news stories extended to public affairs programs that contained showbiz scandals, gory murder scenes, and sound bites of criminals and bloodied corpses22 just to command audience listenership, capture the ratings and rake in profits.
The taglines Kapuso for GMA 7 and Kapamilya for ABS-CBN have garnered audience loyalty. To be a Kapuso is equated with preference for GMA 7 and to be Kapamilya is equated with a preference for ABS-CBN. The competition between ABS CBN 2 and GMA 7 has become intense. It has become a battle for ratings supremacy.
As a result of this competition, programs are a duplicate of the others programs. “Who had the original concept” and “who copied from whom” have become issues among the hosts. Whoever was the original, however, did not mean having the best program. And obviously, ratings “matter and the most entertaining show wins.”
Headlines of radio and television stations played up by both networks proliferated with sensationalized issues such as “who moved from what station to what station.” The sensationalized transfer of homegrown talents from GMA 7 to ABS CBN and vice versa eats up primetime news and entertainment programs. Who gets to transfer to what station gives the stations a boost and an edge to play up the story during prime time hours and lands in the headlines. The case filed by ABS CBN for alleged manipulation of rating results by AGB Nielsen Media Research Philippines has become a network issue that has escalated to a network war. ABS-CBN, for instance, accused rival GMA Network of funding bribing operations in Bacolod City, which the latter denied.
The Quezon City Regional Trial Court on January 7, 2008 dismissed the ABS-CBN lawsuit against AGB Nielsen Media Research Philippines for being “prematurely filed”. On February 14, 2008, a temporary restraining order was issued barring ABS-CBN from airing defamatory statements against GMA. Despite the courts decision, the war is far from over. 23
9. The TAMBULI Community Media Project
9-1 Early beginnings
The TAMBULI Community media project is a unique set-up in a country like the Philippines where there are over 600 radio stations,24 most of which are commercial and the rest, government and religious. Louie Tabing started the project with UNESCOs funding of US$25,000.
The first station that was operated by the TAMBULi project was known as Radio Ivatan and was set up in Basco, a 5th class municipality in the province of Batanes, in the northernmost islands of the Philippines.
The second station was established in Laurel in Batangas Province, about 85 kilometers south of Manila, followed by the third station on the island of Panay, located in central Philippines. The volunteers from the community prepare the programs and manage these stations basically classified as non-commercial, non-political and non-religious.
9-2 Current Status of TAMBULI
Twenty TAMBULI stations are spread out among the remote parts of the country from Joló and Zamboanga in the very south, to the southeastern environmental frontier of Palawan to Batanes in the extreme north. Notably, the TAMBULI project has provided support to the people in terms of empowerment through information so that they can be motivated to take better advantage of existing development opportunities and also to identify and pursue their own development opportunities through media-supported discussions and debates.25 And, given the merits of the project, it earned the UNESCO Rural Communication Prize, worth US$20,000, from among 22 other international contenders.
The pioneering project called tambuli (a Filipino term used for the traditional carabao horn or sea conch used by the chief of the barangay to call the people for an assembly), now stands for Voice of the Small Community for the Development of the Underprivileged.
A set of five objectives guides the project:26
(1) To provide local access to information,
(2) To allow villagers to express themselves,
(3) To link together as a community,
(4) To strengthen the sense of identity, and
(5) To transform the audience from mere receivers to participants and managers of a communication system.
The Community Media Council (CMC) is a multisectoral council that manages the operation and programming of the station. Most of the members participate as broadcasters who tackle subjects such as health, education, youth, agriculture, senior citizens, environment, fishermen, women and legislation, among others. It is the aim of the project to make the CMC the ultimate owner of the stations. 9-3 Programming Programming depends on the need identified by every station. Dagron says that programme slot on environment is called “Nature is Treasure (Ang Kinaiyahan Bahandi)” in Tubajon, “We and the Environment (Kita Ug Ang Kinaiyahan )” in Loreto, and “Caring for the Environment (Ang Pag-Amping Sa Kinaiyahan)” in Maragusan”.27 Common programs featured in most community-based radio stations are short announcements on community events such as village meetings, marriages, deaths, incoming mail, lost cattle, lost children, information on local legislative measures, farmers products, or agricultural services.
10. Challenges of public broadcasting
The proliferation of commercial and non-commercial types of radio and television as shown by the increasing number of radio and television services in the country, has significantly failed to maximize the use of media for instructional, educational, and cultural purposes, especially those that address national concerns and local problems. It has barely managed to produce programs that really reach the poor whose need for education is greatest because, obviously, the existing media can not be detached from vested business and stockholders interests, to which competition lies in numbers more than quality programming. In the case of government media, services are controlled by government. As such, news and information that come out are those that favor the government.
If media has to survive, it has to earn. But while there is nothing wrong with earning, obsession to profit and so much emphasis on ratings can mean jeopardizing the need of the audience to view programs according to true quality rather than just hype. Responsible media broadcasting means the delivery of information and news to the public-as opposed to being headline makers, and using primetime slots for news that further network cause and vested interest. The obvious trend to discredit one network against another network, complemented by allegations and accusations on air, can be a manifestation of neglect of duty and responsibility as media organizations.
The stiff competition as manifested in the proliferation of the infotainment-type of programs driven purely by advertising and business can possibly distort the viewers sense of value and proportion that runs contrary to what is stipulated in the Code by the Kapisanan ng Mga Broadkaster ng Pilipinas which defines public affairs program as those which are geared towards building an enlightened citizenry through the discussion and clarification of issues of national and international significance. 28
The experience with community radio has propelled innovative means to use radio as a tool to empower people through production of information, educational, and cultural programs. With the linkage of over forty-five community radio stations,29 complemented by the new media and other technological options available such as the internet and even mobile telephony, the Philippines we may even have a Public Multimedia Center which is decentralized or de-massified rather than monolithic.30
If public broadcasting service has to be truly responsive to the needs of the people, with a concept of programming that caters to the minorities and the marginalized –it has to be one distinct from state broadcasting as public broadcasting is supported, owned, managed, financed and controlled by the public rather than the government. 31 Therefore, the proposed legislation of Senate Bill 325 has to be thoroughly discussed and debated so that such policies can be put to place and implemented.
The past initiatives to lobby for an alternative broadcast channel to complement the commercially-dominated Philippine broadcast media is in place. And, for such a plan to be realized, it would need 1) the political will of the national government to give up government media and push for the needed legislation to establish the Philippine public broadcasting system, 2) the coordinated advocacy effort among the multisectoral groups to continue past initiatives that laid the ground work for public broadcasting and, 3) the support of the public to take an active role in carrying out the advocacy of knowing the difference between what they want as opposed to what they really need.
1. Speech by Florangel Braid-Rosario as quoted in the article “Philippines To Transform State Broadcasting System into Independent Public Broadcasting” published on 21-03-2005 (New Delhi) by Ramon R. Tuazon, Asian Institute on Journalism and Communication that appeared in
2. 14th Congress, Senate Bill No. 325 PHILIPPINE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM ACT OF 2007 (Explanatory note, paragraph 4). http://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspx?congress=14&q=SBN-325 (as filed) posted on August 8, 2007
3. 14th Congress, Senate Bill No. 325 PHILIPPINE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM ACT OF 2007 (Explanatory note.), http://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspx?congress=14&q=SBN-325 (as filed) posted on August 8, 2007
4. 14th Congress, Senate Bill No. 325 PHILIPPINE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM ACT OF 2007 (Chapter III, section 12), http://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspx?congress=14&q=SBN-325 (as filed) posted on August 8, 2007
5. 14th Congress, Senate Bill No. 325 PHILIPPINE PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM ACT OF 2007 (Chapter VI, Section 25), http://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspx?congress=14&q=SBN-325 (as filed) posted on August 8, 2007
6. Freedom of Expression and the Media in the Philippines, (part of a series of baseline studies on seven Southeast Asian countries, page 28), ARTICLE 19, London and CMFR Manila, ISBN 1 902598 80 6, December 2005, page 28, http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/philippinesbaseline-study.pdf
7. National Telecommunications Commission, that appeared in http://www.ntc.gov.ph , (‘n.d)
8. National Telecommunications Commission, that appeared in http://www.ntc.gov.ph (‘n.d)
9. TV Cable, Pay & Broadcast Networks, http://www.hoovers.com/tv-cable,-pay-&-broadcast-networks/–ID__328-/free-ind-fr-profile-basic.xhtml Last Quarterly Update: 8/25/2008
10. ABS-CBN_Broadcasting_Corporation – ABS-CBN wikipedia, http: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ This page was last modified on 16 October 2008, at 18:34.
11. GMANetwork, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ This page was last modified on 16 October 2008, at 18:34.
12. Freedom of Expression and the Media in the Philippines, (part of a series of baseline studies on seven Southeast Asian countries, page 28), ARTICLE 19, London and CMFR Manila, ISBN 1 902598 80 6, December 2005, http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/philippinesbaseline-study.pdf
13. BBS- Agency Profile, http://www.ops.gov.ph/bbs/agency_profile.htm (‘n.d)
14. BBS- Agency Profile, http://www.ops.gov.ph/bbs/agency_profile.htm (‘n.d)
15. Office of the_Press_Secretary_(Philippines) http://www.news.ops.gov.ph ,October 22, 2008
16. About the Bureau of broadcast, http://www.ops.gov.ph/bbs/index.htm ) October 22, 2008
17. OPS, Bureau of Broadcast, http://www.ops.gov.ph October 22, 2008
18. About NBN, http://www.nbni.tv/about-nbn, October 22, 2008
19. Office of the Press Secr3etary, http://www.news.ops.gov.ph ,October 22, 2008
20. Most data on company profile of ABS CBN was taken from http://www.benpresholdings.com/media/HDNWIzaMLopez_Link_20064.pdf(‘n.d)
21. Most data on company profile of GMA Network, were taken from http://www.gmanetwork.com/ (n.d.)
22. “The Empire Strikes Back”, by Luz Rimban contained in the book From Loren to Marimar: The Philippine Media in the 1990s. (1996). 23. PEPEditoryal, War beyond Figures, http://blogs.pep.ph/pepeditoryal/?p=25 – 81k, Views, January 10, 2008.
24. RADIO FOR ISLAND COMMUNITIES,’Tambuli in Philippines http://www.i4donline.net/aug04/tambuli.pdf, August 2004 issue
25. RADIO FOR ISLAND COMMUNITIES, ‘Tambuli in Philippines, with credits from the article Communicating for Development by Colin Fraser and Sonia Restrepo-Estrada, I.B.Tauris Publishers, London, New York, 1998 (pp. 190-218). http://www.i4donline.net/aug04/tambuli, August 2004 issue Making Waves: TAMBULI, article by Alfonso Dagron, www.comminit.com/en/node/1649/307 – 52k, published in 2001. http://www.comminit.com/en
26. Making Waves: TAMBULI, article by Alfonso Dagron, www.comminit.com/en/node/1649/307 – 52k, published in 2001. http://www.comminit.com/en.
27. Media ownership and control in the Philippines Sheila S. Coronel http://www.wacc.org.uk/index.php/wacc/publications/media_development/…4/
media_ownership_and control in the_philippines (‘n.d)
28. Philippines To Transform State Broadcasting System into Independent Public Broadcasting” published on 21-03-2005 (New Delhi) by Ramon R. Tuazon, Asian Institute on Journalism and Communication that appeared in
29. Philippines To Transform State Broadcasting System into Independent Public Broadcasting” published on 21-03-2005 (New Delhi) by Ramon R. Tuazon, Asian Institute on Journalism and Communication that appeared in
30. Philippines To Transform State Broadcasting System into Independent Public Broadcasting” published on 21-03-2005 (New Delhi) by Ramon R. Tuazon, Asian Institute on Journalism and Communication that appeared in
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Assistant Professor of Broadcast Communication, University of the Philippines Visayas
B.A Mass Communication major in Broadcast Communication, University of the Philippines Diliman. MA Communication Research, 1983, University of the Philippines, Diliman Special Training on Radio Production, Broadcast Production Training Center, Cebu Philippines [Related Experiences] Scriptwriter, Director of documentary programs Materials Specialist: Information, Education and Communication materials Initiated the establishment of the Intra-school broadcasting Laboratory, UP Visayas.