21st JAMCO Online International Symposium
March 14 to September 15, 2013
Tsunami Response Systems and the Role of Asia's Broadcasters
The Roles of Broadcasters in Disaster Reportage:
A Lesson Learned from Tsunami Reportage in Indonesia
There are continuing concerns about the media’s role in our society and their influences on our individual lives. Both collectively and individually, we have become enormously dependent upon mass communication.
It is through the news media that most people become aware of disasters. No one questions the importance of radio and television stations in issuing emergency advices and public warnings about impending disasters. The perceptions of those who are distanced from a disaster area are more often shaped or determined by radio or TV broadcasts. Despite the fact that not all media reports have positive effects or consequences, they most certainly influence how the public perceives hazards, probabilities of disasters, unfolding issues and what should be done during an emergency.
Aceh was the closest land to the epicenter of the massive Indian Ocean earthquake in 2004. This earthquake triggered a tsunami that devastated much of the coast of Aceh, including parts of the coast of Banda Aceh, the provincial capital. The undersea mega thrust earthquake hit Sunday morning right before 8 am, 26th of December, around the time when many people walked or played sports around the beach, enjoying their leisure time.
With magnitude of 9.1, it is the third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. The earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as one centimeter and triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicenter was between Simeulue and mainland Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman Earthquake. The resulting tsunami is given various names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South Asian tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, and the Boxing Day tsunami. In this report I will use the name Tsunami Aceh.
According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the Tsunami Aceh killed a total of 227,898 people in 14 countries. It inundated coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters high. Measured in the lives lost, this is the tenth worst earthquake in recorded history, as well as the single worst tsunami in history. Indonesia was the worst affected country with its death toll estimated at around 170,000.
Relief agencies reported that one-third of the dead appear to be children. This is a result of the high proportion of children among the populations in many of the affected regions and the fact that children were least able to resist against the surging waters. Oxfam, an international confederation that works to end poverty and injustice, reported that as many as four times more women than men were killed in some regions because they were waiting on the beach for the fishermen to return or looking after their children in their houses.
Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed by Sri Lanka, India and Thailand. The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response. In 2004, the worldwide community donated more than USD 14 billion in humanitarian aid. States of emergency were declared in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Maldives. The UN estimated at the outset that the relief operation would be the costliest in human history. Then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that reconstruction would probably take between five and ten years. Governments and non-governmental organizations feared that the final death toll might double as a result of diseases, prompting a massive humanitarian response. In the end, however, this fear did not materialize.
For Indonesia, the disaster caused many deaths, material losses, damages, and immaterial losses. Bandan Koordinasi Nasional (National Coordination Agency) stated the total loss was USD 4.5 billion. Among this figure, total loss of telecommunication infrastructures was USD 22 million (USD 19 million for damages and USD 3 million for losses). Number of victims were: dead 100,258, missing 132,000, wounded 1,016, and loss of homes 417,124. Damages included 1.3 million homes and buildings, 8 ports and 4 fuel deports, 92% of sanitation system, 120 km of roads and 18 bridges.
1-2. Role of broadcasters
Broadcasters in Indonesia took an important role. Media professionals, especially the broadcasters, became the bridge between the government officers and the society. They saved many lives by reporting the disaster. They were able to broadcast early warning reports against the repeated earthquakes and tsunami. After the disaster, they took part in showing images of the damages done and pointed out the available safety efforts provided for the survivors. Furthermore, they then monitored efforts of the reconstruction projects and activities. Recently, they provided updates to the public regarding the developments and researches about tsunami. For example, RRI (Radio of Republic of Indonesia) reported lively from the emergency tents through its program called Radio-based Disaster Management. Less than 24 hours after the event, RRI actually broadcasted a disaster report. RRI then provided another program using emergency studio for entertaining the survivors, which was called the “Trauma Healing Program.”
In broadcasting the event, the news media were struggling to meet the changing phases. The cost of collecting, transmitting, and disseminating information were continuing to rise. To remain competitive, besides being forced to introduce sophisticated and expensive new equipments such as computers, color presses, sattellite dishes, minicams and other innovations, they have to make some creative works in reporting the disaster. In an effort to attract a stable, loyal audience, television producers have experimented with new formats and techniques ranging from “trash TV” to simulations and reenactments of real events. (Cook, et al., 1992).
The world has truly become a global village where even the most mundane event can be brought lively to television screens no matter where it happened. Like police radio scanners, the news service has become the early warning advisory of breaking news for hundreds of print and broadcast editorial offices. On major, continuing stories such as Tsunami Aceh, the news service becomes a virtual “wire” service providing editors and writers sitting in their home newsroom with their own view of the story. In its efforts to cover all aspects of the disaster, media has an important role. The fast and broad reach of media reports may shift the international attention and intervention, including volunterrings and donations, nationally and internationally toward certain directions. However, sometimes there are problematic broadcasting that happenen during a disaster reportage.
2. Disaster Reportage via Electronic Media
2-1. The effects of news to the public
Mr. Roni Pangengah of Metro TV broadcast mentioned in a seminar that Metro TV is a pioneer in amateur video show called “Wide Shot” broadcasted on television.
A producer of the Wide Shot explained that the video was first aired on Metro TV and immediately circulated around the world. Furthermore, the concept of “citizen journalist” obtained a special place in this private TV program which was operated with a concept that allowed ordinary people to act like a television journalist.
While not many people have a chance to record special events, such as natural disasters and Tsunami Aceh, Mr. Cut Putri, a medical student of the University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, west Jawa, had something to share ( Atjeh Cyber Warrior, 2011). The earthquake struck when he was staying at his relative’s residence having a breakfast. He immediately took the handycam, shot the ferocious wave motion from the second floor of the house which is located in Jalan Lam Jame, Banda Aceh, about a kilometer from the beach. Three days later, the images recorded by Cut Putri was aired over Metro TV. Video images enabled the viewers to imagine how fierce Tsunami Aceh was. The tsunami video made by Cut Putri was not only aired on Metro TV but was also aired in international television networks such as the CNN and BBC. Cut Putri even recorded a bleeding woman when the tsunami was hitting Aceh. When Metro TV aired these images after the tsunami, the public discussed the rise of “citizen journalism”. Citizen journalism is a form of journalism where citizens participate in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information in and through a variety of media.
National Broadcasters like Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) sent its reporter to make live broadcast from disaster areas in Aceh. Mr. Rahman Rivai, a reporter of RRI, said that cost is a problem. RRI sent him and another staff from Jakarta head office with the cost of Rp. 6 million (or about US$ 600) for 5 days. It was the cost for food, shelter, transportation and broadcasting. The team felt as if they were in a war where they have only two choices: to live or die. They did their best to send messages and reports from Aceh to the public throughout the country. They were using satellite mobile broadcast of RRI radio station in Lambaro Aceh Besar.
The problem for media was that access to the area was restricted due to national security reasons, since Aceh was under the military martial law. However, a certain commercial broadcasters exploited victims for their benefits in order to report from restricted areas.
After completing his five days in Aceh, Rahman Rivai returned to Jakarta and then went to back to Aceh again with the assistance of another supporting institution, as he felt he can voluntarily help the victims by using RRI microphones.
2-2. Theory of CNN effect
The theory of “CNN effect” helps us explain the media impact during a political crisis, human tragedy or disaster. It originally portrayed the impact of CNN (Cable News Network) on the Amerian foreign policy during the Cold War but a research was conducted on how a similar phenomena occured after the Aceh Tsunami. A statistical research on media report and Internet donations discovered that for every minute of additional news allocated to the tsunami on the evening TV network news, that day’s donation increased by 13.2% and an additional 700-word story on New York Times and Wall Street Jounal raised donations by 18.2% of the daily average (Brown & Minty, 2006).
“CNN syndrome” refers to the tendency for local disasters to get national television coverage, especially by news channels. “Camcorder politics” happens when a national leaders respond to certain local events even though their help is not requested by the local authorities. Critical media coverage can provide an incentive for political leaders and public officials to demonstrate responsiveness.
In fact, many “political celebrities” seem to suddenly apprear on television during a disaster. Disasters have become targets of camcorder politics in which not only the politicians but also the celebrities seek opportunities to be filmed at disaster sites in order to exhibit compassion and at the same time to demonstrate responsiveness to the public that may yield them some benefits of being popular and perceived as generous.
As for the media, conveying urgency, immediacy and even danger becomes the goal of most correspondents at scenes of disasters. Unfortunately in some cases, the situation press the edges of responsible journalism. Some media look for whatever is sensational, engrossing and controversial. News gathering and investigative report by such media may produce politically and managerially troublesome outcomes for the emergency management.
2-3. Case of Metro TV
The news on Metro TV was designed to be fully intelligible to viewers. It focused on providing tsunami-related programs with constant updates about the situation. There were breaking news every hour, occasionally interrupting or replacing television programme schedules to provide latest news updates as soon as some important events occurred. Information, narration, sound and pictures were selected and organized to illustrate the seriousness of the disaster.
For most Indonesians, Tsunami Aceh, was the largest disaster ever seen. Before 2004, major disasters in Indonesia included train crashs, volcanic erruptions and others but the Tsunami Aceh was by far the most serious.
The CNN effect happened in Indonesia too. The news channel Metro TV can be perceived as a pioneer for CNN-style media coverage in Indonesia. Metro TV reports portrayed the serious damages and deaths. It also broadcasted images of shocked people who just looked around with empty eyes, became still as few silent tears slowly rolled down their faces, at the site where it was supposed to be their home. The images of empty beaches with few palm trees left told the viewers that everything along the shore was absorbed by the sea, leaving few remains. Metro TV also reported how shops were destroyed, houses crushed and roofs, walls and foundations of buildings were scattered on the sand.
Such images replaced the commercial messages that should have appeared otherwise. These dramatic images were aired every day for one month after the disaster. At the end of each news, there was an interview with experts including earthquakes experts, psychologists, sociologists and government officers. The program was aired live using Sattellite News Gathering (SNS) and telephone.
Metro TV reporters were sent to different locations to profide updates every hour. They even produced some exclusive programs to attract the viewer’s attention. Images were integrated with the verbal accounts that engaged the eyes and ears of the viewers. Metro TV used music and montages of images in the background, providing viewers with impressionistic portraits of the event. To make the news more credible, Metro TV often broadcasted interviews with experts from the BKMG (Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics) and other related agencies.
2-4. Fundraising activities
Waves of donations hit Aceh after Metro TV broadcasted the impact of tsunami on Aceh, also known as Tanah Rencong. During the following 40 days, through series of breaking news and programs such as “Indonesia Menangis (Indonesia Crying),” the TV station brought tears to viewers outside of Aceh. The broadcast also inspired viewers to donate their possessions and money. Aceh’s sad news was soon spread abroad. After a few weeks, 15 countries agreed to unite their aid in the Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (North Smatra province hit by tsunami), amounting to USD 525 million. The Fund was led collectively by representatives from the European Union, the largest donor, the World Bank, and the Agency for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction for the Region and Community of Aceh and Nias (BRR). Asian Development Bank funded USD 300 million.
In addition to receiving relief goods through the TV program “Indonesia Crying,” this private station opened accounts for donation in Indonesian banks (Bank of Central Asia and Bank Mandiri). Fundraising was successful that within a week, it collected Rp 40 billion. The TV coverage greatly increased national and international awareness, enhancing solidarity and participation not only within Indonesia but also across the world.
For example, Ms. Mutia Safitri, an employee at the Export Insurance PT Indonesia, was one of the millions of viewers who watched “Indonesia Crying” and felt overcome with sadness (Samiaji Bintang, 2007). She immediately began coordinating fundraising efforts directly from her office in South Jakarta, raising Rp 533 million from approximately 50 employees. The money was sent to the account of media company PT Citra Media Nusa Purnama three days after the event, on December 29.
In addition to Metro TV, a number of print and electronic media made similar programs. The TV station SCTV launched the “Charity Purse SCTV” and RCTI broadcasted “RCTI Care”. Reuters Group appealed to the hearts of readers through the “Humanitarian Wallet Compass”. Printed media such as Jawa Pos, Mind, Suara Merdeka and Republika simultaneously opened their helplines to the readers.
Even before the Tsunami, the Public Interest Research and Advocacy Center (2003) proved that popular television media attracted sympathy of viewers. The reason was simple: messages in such media were able to explore and exploit a sense of compassion within the public. A research by PIRAC revealed that within a month after the tsunami, total fund raised through print and electronic media for tsunami victims in Aceh and Nias reached Rp 310,891 billion. That number continues to grow, although not significantly. Until August 2005, the amount of funds collected reached approximately USD 367.170 billion. Above all, nothing was equal to a fundraising program conducted by Mr. Surya Paloh, president of Media Group, and his team. Media Group raised the greatest amount, reaching USD 169.185 billion. The second was another media group, including AP-TV7 that raised Rp 50.687 billion.
3. Broadcasters’ Rights and Responsibilities in Disaster Reportage
Broadcasters have the right to seek the truth, report and be independent (Chadwick, 1996). In practice, these rights are qualified by law and ethics. Broadcasters need independence from the government, media owners, advertisers and patrons. Yet they cannot be entirely independent of any of these. The government not only makes laws under which media business operates but it is also often a primary source of news. Owners pay salaries and provide expert service. Advertisers supply much of their revenue on which the private media depends. Media cannot fulfill any responsibilities unless they continue to exist under such influence.
Broadcasters have a potential to provide public services in the event of a disaster. They can supply information and directions to the affected public and disseminate information to prepare the public for similar disaster in the future. Moreover, they can stimulate volunteerism and donations including blood donations and disclose the needs for improvements in governmental response. At times, they may withhold information that could be counterproductive.
News media give disaster a public spotlight, but the attention of the public is often short-lived. When a disaster or an emergency is no longer newsworthy or people get bored with the issue due to the extended reportage, media coverage will decrease and ultimately end. News coverage of a disaster almost always end before the disaster recovery really begins. When that happens, not many people will follow the process of reconstruction and recovery.
The bottom line is that it is important to make the media part of the emergency management team prior to a disaster event. They should be brought into disaster planning. Their coverage will be more informative and accurate if media know the local players and programs ahead of time. Emergency managers need a well-informed media to communicate with the public regarding the priority of needs, the progress being made and to correct and dispell rumors. National Early Warning Systyem, as we will discuss later, included broadcasters into the system.
4. Critics for Broadcaster’s Disaster Reportage
Learning from the case of Tsunami Aceh’s broadcasting program, there are at least five points to be analyzed.
4-1. Media independence
The broadcaster should function as “watch dogs.” Regarding the function of mass media as a surveillant of the environment, media should deliver all the information they can gather about an event. If the broadcasters are busy indulgeing in collecting and distributing donations and charities, who else should play the role as the “watch dog”? Who could monitor the distribution process of donations to make sure the donation will be received by those people who really need? Who will take the responsibility of monitoring the process of rehabilitation and reconstruction, such as whether they are proceeding as planned?
This practice of disaster commodification, then, will negatively imply the reputation and accountability of the broadcasters. An organization should provide its own fund for corporate social responsibility activities. In the case of Metro TV, all of the publications and posters regarding the distribution of donations and charities included a Metro TV logo. Every bundles of goods given to victims had one too.
4-2. Media Accountability
Concerning the accountability, who are going to monitor all the distribution of donations and charities? For example, the Metro TV did not recommend audience to donate through professional institutions or humanitarian agencies. It is better and safer, actually, for Metro TV to cooperate and coordinate with professional institutions like the Red Cross or Dompet Dhuafa, rather than to coordinate the donation by themselves. In that way, the obligation of Metro TV may be limited to monitoring the distribution of donations. Even though this self-organizing program may make the station act as a “santa claus,” media or broadcaster involvement in this kind of activity may spoil the principle of media independence.
4-3. News objectivity
“Principle of objectivity” states that the press should be objective in its presentation of materials. Press should be a representative, both of the range of views held in a society and of the existence of the various social groups in the society. Disaster management is normally a low salience issue but media coverage of a disaster tend to give it a high political salience. In case of Metro TV, it seemed to report more on organizations that it is affilliated with. For example, Surya Paloh, the owner of Metro TV, was a politician and at that time was affiliated with the biggest political party in Indonesia.
The other issue for news objectivity is the “citizen journalism.” In the case of Tsunami Aceh, Metro TV allowed amateurs who had images of disaster to send it to the station and broadcasted them. Problem with this method is the difficulty of quality control, since many potential news-gatherers have not been trained in journalism and indoctrinated with its standards for objectivity and diligence. Quality of program concerns the question of who is reporting and publishing the news. Even though some “make-overs” have been conducted to make the news attaractive, these news seemed to be very difficult for viewing.
4-4. Public interest versus commercial interest
News organizations are journalistic enterprises organized to maximaze viewerships and/or listening audience, maximize readers and subscribers, and draw advertising revenue. For this reason, such organizations look for whatever is sensational, engrossing or controversial. Kovach et al. (2002) mentioned that “We have an obligation to protect this watchdog freedom by not demeaning it in frigilous use or exploiting it for commercial gain”.
Metro TV abandoned the principle in the “Indonesia Crying.” Even though they tried to cover up some actual and newest information regarding the distaster, they still facilitated their popularity and prestige as news TV, so as to sell more commercial time for advertisers. It seems unethical and inappropriate, to utilize the deep sorrow of the victims for one’s commercial gains.
The TV station exploited the victims through different images and reports. There were images of unwrapped dead bodies and bleeding victims who were struggling for life, who were broadcasted in inappropriate ways. As such pictures were broadcasted frequently, they affected the victim’s relatives and families emotionally. Repeated use of such images can even develop a traumatic emotion to the viewers.
4-5. Bad news is good news?
The expression, “bad news is good news,” has become a broadcaster’s philosophy. Broadcasters produce low-quality programs whenever they focus on ratings with disregard to the negative impact they can have on the viewers. The Community Against Bad Television Programs (Masyarakat Anti Program Televisi Buruk) have criticized the two news channels Metro TV and TVOne for their poor contents and lack of jounaristic ethics, making the news programs too sensational.
Bias in news reports can be seen during a disaster. Media sometimes play a counter-productive role when covering a disaster or an emergency. Metro TV occasionally exaggerate or speculate on facts to beef-up the disaster as a story, over-estimate the amount of panic and looting, perpetuate disaster myths such as a disaster incapacitating an entire community. They sometimes falsely portray as if looting and lawlessness covers the whole community that the devastated victims will not be able to recover on their own without outside help, limiting and even hindering the possible options for relief efforts by authorities.
Also, the reporters were not familiar with the mechanisms of tsunami. Reporters tried to simplify complex situations. It may be a valuable service to the time-stressed non-expert viewers but too much simplification would interfere with the public’s true understanding of what really happened. For example, many of them do not understand seismicity or meteorological information related to the earthquake. Or during the recovery process, they did not explore or investigate the plans and programs developed by the government. Unfortunately, reporters seldom understand the governmental programs that are in place to help victims.
5. Coping With Disaster and Preparing for the Future: After Tsunami
Tsunami and other natural disasters are much more frequent in the Pacific Ocean because earthquakes occur around the “Ring of Fire,” where an effective tsunami warning system has long been in place. Although the extreme western edge of the Ring of Fire extends into the Indian Ocean, the point where this earthquake struck, no warning system existed in the Indian Ocean. Tsunami is relatively rare despite the fact earthquake itself is quite frequently experienced in Indonesia. Building a tsunami detection system is technologically quite difficult. Setting up a communications infrastructure for timely warnings is an even bigger problem, particularly in a relatively poor part of the world.
5-1. Development of community broadcasting
In Aceh, community radios have been developed according to the local characteristics, cultures and customs. They were mostly developed in Gampong (villages) that were affected by the tsunami. The villagers participated and supported the radio stations, getting involved in many different ways. Some stations became self-sustained through the culture of Muslim programs. Others developed to monitor the distribution of donations and charities.
Tsunami Aceh provided the opportunity to develop a community based media. Until then, there were no community radio stations but only commercial private radio stations. The first community radio, the Suara Muhammadiyah in Banda Aceh, was supported by the Central Commitee of Muhammadiyah and the news agency Radio 68H in Jakarta. The radio station used loudspeakers at the victims’ shelters so the more people can listen to the newest information.
Few days after the Tsunami, residents in Aceh had trouble gathering information since the tsunami washed away the infrastructures and devices necessary to watch TV or listen to radio. Commercial radios in Banda Aceh were out of business; they were Flamboyan FM, Nikoya FM, Kontiki FM, CDBS FM and Toss FM. Even public broadcasters such as the Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) could not operate for almost a month (Satria, 2008).
People searched for newest information concerning their families and neighborhood. At that time, local broadcasters, mainly community radio, took an important role. The radios broadcasted the locations and sizes of victims who had not received any support from the government or NGOs.
The other institution, Combine Resource Institution (CRI) from Jogjakarta developed a program called Atjeh Emergency Radio Network (AERnet) with support from Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF), funded by the World Bank, for developing the information and communication networks through community radio. The program successfully developed five community radios; Swara Meulaboh FM in Meulaboh Kabupaten Aceh Barat, Suara Sinabang FM in Sinabang Kabupaten Simeuleu, Seha FM in Jantho Kabupaten Aceh Besar, Al Jumhur FM in Simpang Mamplam Kabupaten Bireun, and Samudera FM in Geudong Kabupaten Aceh Utara. At present, Seha FM and Swara Meulaboh FM are not operating due to issues with licence and managerial competencies.
CRI then developed another program called the Aceh-Nias Reconstruction Radio Network (ARRnet). This program facilitated two-way communication between community groups that took benefits from reconstruction and rehabilitation programs and the community group that excecuted the programs. These development programs focused on Aceh and Nias, which were most affected by the tsunami. In 2007, there were around 30 community radios developed in Aceh.
5-2. Building an early warning system
Depending on the type of disaster, there are time for preparation. For example, hurricanes and floods can be predicted at an early stage and warning announcements can be delivered several hours in advance. However, for disasters like earthquakes and tsunami, there is virtually no time to prepare. This is why it is important for people to be ready for a disaster at any times. All media organizations need to have an emergency broadcast plan, which would ensure that the staffs, editors, reporters, cameramen, anchors and others know what to do when a disaster occurs. While many private companies have the option to stop their operation during a disaster, the media, especially broadcasters, needs to remain in contact with their audience.
Indonesia is now developing an early warning system against all hazards in order to reduce and mitigate damages. For news coverage, the system called the National Early Warning System News-Indonesia activates related organizations such as the Center National Disaster Management Coordinating Board (BAKORNAS), a local authority that deals with the police, local governments and communities. The other parties that will be involved in this system are the broadcasters and cellular operators that distribute information regarding the hazard and disaster through television, radio and short message service (SMS).
The National Center for Early Warning System was established under the National Coordinating Board that is supervised by the President and Vice President. This organization has Coordinating Action Unit that supervise the field teams. To make their systems run effectively, the organizations make networks and relationships with National Search and Rescue Agency, Ministry of Public Works, local governments and others, including Universities, Mosques and Churches.
Some activites that relate to preventive and anticipative activities are education regarding disaster anticipation in offices, schools, residences and others through television and radio broadcasts as well as printed leaflets. For disaster relief activities, there are victim evacuation, handling of refugee/victims and damage rehabitilitation.
In case of an impending disaster, the policy focuses on disseminating accurate early warning information promptly to the people in locations that are about to be hit, so that they may protect themselves or evacuate to a safer place. Disaster information are formatted in various ways to the public through the Multi Mode Media: Broadcast Mode, Multicast Mode, and Others. For Broadcast Mode, whose target is the public, will use terrestrial sound broadcasting (FM, AM) as audio news; telops for terrestrial TV broadcasting as breaking news. Cellular phone operators will utilize SMS and Internet operators will manage emails and portal sites.
For Multicast Mode, whose target is the local authority, will use satellite TV and sound broadcasting, voice, text and picture over satellite phone, cellular phone, telephone, fax and internet. Amature radio and citizen-band radio is used for voice and text. Police radio communication by handy talkie, cellular phones, sirens, bells, loudspeakers, display as well as traditional instruments will be used to deliver information to people in residences and public places such as mosques, churchs, temples, markets, etc.
It should be noted that due to the characteristics of communities in Indonesia, loudspeakers in mosques can be heard by a lot of people, wherever they are. Communication distance is 200 to 300 meters for voice warning by a loudspeaker and 1 to 2 kilometers by a siren.
Through these systems and equipments, we hope to reduce the damages and victims caused by future disasters.
Atjeh Cyber Warrior (2011), “Cut Putri, Perempuan Aceh Pelopor Citizen Journalism Indonesia,” Islamic Cyber Media of Sumatra, powered by Atjeh Cyber Warrior (TM), Facebook, dated June 17, 2011,
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Cook, Philip S., et al. (ed.) (1992) The Future of News: Television, Newspapers, Wire Service, Newsmagazines, The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C.
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Rifka Sibarani (2012), “Media Sumber Bencana, Ilmu Komunikasi Fisipol UGM”, Kompasiana, dated December 15, 2012.
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http://www.weready.org/CDM/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=33&itemid=40, accessed on January 20, 2013.
*Links are for posted items. It is possible that some items are not currently available or are being edited.
Chairman, Indonesiasatu Communication, Jakarta
Born in Kupang, Capital city of East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia; Dated, 16 November 1961.
Background Education :
1994: S1 : degree of Public Administration of Academic of State Public Administration
2004: S2 : degree in communication field at the University of Indonesia.
2013 :S3 : On going process, Dissertation on Political Science at the University of Indonesia.
Working Experience :
Currently : Chief Editor of Lider Magazine – A monthly knowledge Magazine, Jakarta.
Currently: Chairman of IndonesiaSatu Foundation.
Currently: Lecturer of Psychology Communication at Institute of Business Informatics Indonesia (IBii), Jakarta.
2001 - 2002: Host of Autonomous Region, an interactive program at TVRI.
2005 -2009 : Program Director with QTV ( a cable broadcaster).
2006 - Organized and Host of OPOSISI, a QTV talk show
1984 - 2004: Civil servant with the Joint Department of information.
1987 - 1997: News editor, producer, newscaster, and interviewer for the Voice of Indonesia.
1997 - 2004: Producer and newscaster of RRI domestic service.
Overseas /Domestic Experiences in Journalism:
2007-2004 : covered various social and political issues around the world and domestic ones.
A special course for radio reporting skills in Washington DC, 1995.
Special workshops on children's rights- organized by UNICEF in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in1999. Etc.
DIA : A Picture of Megawati Soekarnoputri-published by Magnum Publishing, 2004. ( a diary).
MOST WANTED LEADERS : A trilogy of 64 prominent Indonesia figures and their thoughts, 2009.