23rd JAMCO Online International Symposium
February 2015 - October2015
Audience Perception of Japanese TV Programs in Asia and the Middle East.
SURVEY ON STUDENTS, WHO WATCHED DVDS MADE BY JAMCO,
IN FACULTY EARLY CHILDHOOD OF EDUCATION,
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
1.Rationale and objectives of the study:
On December 7th 2007, Hanoi University of Education (HNUE), Children Literature Centre (CLC) and Japanese Agency of Media and Communications (JAMCO) signed the memorandum of understanding (MOU), affirming official relationship of the two parties. Up to now, after seven years of MOU signing, students in Faculty Early Childhood of Education have a chance to using DVD from JAMCO as well as relevant facilities to study.
This survey is a trial survey which covers in three different groups of students. It does help CLC to understand more the effect that the DVDs have made to the thinking, awareness, attitude and behaviour of students. On the other hand, CLC would like to learn whether the students truly understand the DVDs, remember them and have the idea of applying them for their study or not!
Through this small and serious survey, CLC would also like to present its capacity and its study efficiency in support of JAMCO to find out more about the Vietnamese audience’s taste in general, and of those who major in pre-school study in particular regarding their products. This is useful for the long term cooperation of the two sides. Initial studies will pave the way for larger scale study with closer cooperation between JAMCO and CLC.
2.Objects of study
– Objectives: To find out awareness and attitude of students of Faculty of Pre-school education, Hanoi University of Education regarding the DVDs by JAMCO, Japan.
– Objects of study:
+ 37 students of K55 program, Faculty Early Childhood of education, Hanoi University of Education (Observed in 2008)
+ 44 students of K60, Faculty Early Childhood of education, Hanoi University of Education (Observed in 2013)
+ 46 students of K61, Faculty Early Childhood of education, Hanoi University of Education (Observed in 2013)
– Survey awareness of students regarding the DVDs by JAMCO.
– Survey attitude of students regarding the DVDs by JAMCO.
– Survey students’ DVD usage orientation for DVD sets by JAMCO.
– Survey benefits that the DVDs by JAMCO bring about to students in particular and the audience in general.
A.OVERVIEW OF OBJECTS OF STUDY
B1.STUDY RESULT IN K55(Pitagor switch (DVD 1), Rockie and hers friends (DVD 2) and Human puppets (DVD 3)) by Thao Thi Vu – Tuyen Thanh Dinh
1.Students’ capability in classification of the DVDs subject to their typical contents and colours for the three sets of DVDs:
The DVDs by JAMCO have distinctive division in terms of the contents. Hence, we did the survey on whether students have the capability to classify the content and one feature of colour used in each set of DVD. The result is shown below:
|DVD set||Link the right contents and recognise the right typical colour||Link the wrong content and wrong typical colour|
The result shows that although these are two different aspects (content and form), students once know how to distinguish the contents will likely find the right colour for each DVD set. As the DVD 1 set has the content of Science discovery, the main colour feature is natural colour of life, except the colours of puppet narrators. Therefore, the contents and colours of this DVD set are matched correctly 100% by the students in the survey. Regarding the contents and colours of the DVD set 2, Rockie and her friends, and DVD set 3, Human puppet, the percentage of correctness is lower. This proves the students’ awareness is correct but not exactly right. For the DVD set 2, the correct match is mainly in the content matching, while the colour matching is not exactly linked. Especially, due to language barrier plus not fully taken into mind, some students mistook DVD set 2 and DVD set 3 with each other. This has led to the wrong matching. The DVD set 3 in particular, students often mistake in matching it to the content of World affairs fairy tales while the content of this DVD set is fable which gives virtue lesson to children in an obvious way. Hence, the right answer should be Fable fairy tale.
Nevertheless, basically most students have the right answers. This can be explained thanks to the content and lively and understandable cartoons by JAMCO. Although there is language barrier, the images themselves with their lively and lovable features from the DVDs have attracted most students and help them to find out right direction in classification of the contents as well as the forms of each DVD.
2.Awareness and attitude of students against the Science Discovery DVD set (DVD set 1)
This section surveys the awareness and attitude of students against the DVD set of Science Discovery. As the typical feature of this DVD set is to help children to find out more about common science knowledge, the first questions focus on the way the producers organize scientific contents as well as what scenes in the cartoons have the most attractive features to the students. The result is shown below:
2.1 What are the interesting things from the DVD set that attract the students?
|1||Natural and effective way of teaching children||25||65.65|
|2||Stimulate curiosity and self-discovery capability of children||18||49.00|
|3||Stimulate imagination of children||18||49.00|
|4||Stimulate interest of children||16||43.24|
|5||Image of puppet narrators (the TV god and the scholarly nook) which are pretty and meaningful||09||24.00|
|6||The scientific content which is arranged in an understandable and lively way, close to real life||10||27.00|
|7||Not interest at all or difficult to understand||04||10.81|
The duration for each DVD is not long (about 15 minutes). In each DVD, there are several short episodes. However, the students have eagerly expressed their various ideas which interest them by answering the open question “In DVD set 1, what interest you?” After summarising, we can have 7 main ideas as stated in Table 2.1. Through this, we can find that there are a lot of ideas regarding this DVD set. Six out of seven are positive ideas about the DVD. Only several students express their dissatisfaction about it (the 7th idea).
Of six positive ideas, aspects that interest students are various. There are aspects involving the contents of the DVD. There are also aspects involving the form of the DVD. There are also ideas regarding the effect of the DVD on thinking, imagination as well as the emotion of little audience while there are ideas showing their interest in teaching methodology of children in Japan which is described in the DVD. This has shown that the DVD set has brought about to the students various useful meaning which they can use for their study. Thus, they have watched the DVD set not as the ordinary audience and for recreation purpose but also in the status of the teachers of pre-school education. The interest of the DVD set to them is the interest in relationship among three entities: Educators – children – Visual education equipment. From this point of view, the first idea about the DVD set by JAMCO of “Natural and effective way of teaching children” is the most comprehensive idea and accounting for the majority (65.65%). The second, third, fourth and sixth ideas have looked into further details from the first idea and also made up significant number. Although the fifth idea does not mention directly the content of the DVD set 1 but refer to the details of its form, it is also in the connection with the effect which interest the audience.
In short, this is the DVD set which leave a deep impression in the audience mind in general and the students of K55 programme, the Faculty of pre-school education in particular. Through the ideas collected regarding the DVD set 1, we not only see the success of this DVD set but also understand the active spirit in welcoming it from the future pre-school educators.
Through 2 data tables below, we can see a clearer impression that it left in the students’ mind and the attitude of willingness when they watch this DVD set:
2.2 Which scene from this DVD set interest you most?
|Box or flat||10||27.00|
|The domino scene||14||37.83|
|Illustration for the top||4||10.81|
As DVD set 1 has many scenes about scientific knowledge, interest by students’ covers in various scenes instead of focusing on a certain scene. This is shown in Table 2.2.
2.3 Do students have capability to distinguish different scenes?
a) DVD 1 of DVD set 1: Scene Water music, foot step rthythm, typewriter (Question 4)
|Item||Meaning of the relationship||Number||%|
|1||All create rhythmic movements and motions.||31||83.78|
|2||Images do not have relationship. They are just transitions between scenes.||3||08.11|
|3||All create relaxing and refreshing feeling between scenes.||8||21.62|
|4||All simulate the motion of typewriting||27||72.97|
|5||The start of a new day: fountain shows full vitality; footstep rhythm show morning exercise to start a day; Typewriter shows arrangement of daily work.||1||02.70|
The scenes above are not main cartoon of DVD 1, DVD set 1. They are from section: Today’s Switch. Nevertheless, they still help students to have interesting ideas and connection. This can be considered as a remarkable success of JAMCO. Scenes in the cartoon are arranged in a broad-minded and natural way which are not affected and imposing any ideas on the audience. Yet, they still inspire logical connections and let the audience have their own imagination and connection. The interesting thing is that any idea from the above 5 meanings of the relationship that the students have expressed is reasonable to some extent. However, the ideas are more on the side of item No. 1 (83.78 %) and item No. 4 (72.97%).
b) DVD 2 of DVD set 1: The scene the top, Pottery making, cream cake, ice skating (Question 5)
|Item||Meaning of the relationship||Number||%|
|1||All create the connection to explain the spiral axis in accordance with the centrifugal law||35||94.59|
|2||Only arrangement by chance with no connection||02||05.41|
It is different from the scene Water music, foot step rhythm, typewriter in DVD 1 of DVD set No. 1; the scenes: the top, Pottery making, cream cake, ice skating in DVD 2, DVD set 1 play a focal point with the title of Things that spin. The connection meaning of these scenes is therefore more concentrated, easier to recognize, and simultaneously they have suggestive titles. Hence, most students have found the relation between them. The top, Pottery making, cream cake, ice skating all create the connection to explain the spiral axis in accordance with the centrifugal law. That’s the reason why this episode has the title of Things that spin. For this episode, the audience in general and students of K55 programme, Faculty of Pre-school education in particular all are able to refer to the centrifugal law which has been applied in all aspects of life, from production to cooking activities or in sports and art. Such introduction of things that spin has made a great effect in practicing mental capability in presumption and generalization.
3.Students’ understanding and attitude against the DVD set: Rockie and her friends (DVD set 2)
3.1 Students’ understanding about the main features of the DVD set
3.2 Lessons in DVD set 2:
|1. The Mushroom Witch of the Breezy forest||a. Cautious and ingenious spirit||08||22.00|
|b. Bravery and self-reliance||13||35.00|
|c. Community and mutual support||14||38.00|
|d. Compassion and unselfishness||0||00.00|
|2. The first day at the school||a. Condescending and harmonious||26||70.00|
|b. School is a fun place with amazing things||18||49.00|
|c. Going to school is boring and risky||0||00.00|
|d. Scholarly and strict teachers||02||05.00|
Through the survey data, almost all students have understood the right content. However, they have not highly appreciated the aesthetic feature in general (5%) and picturesque feature (5%) in particular of the DVD set. This means that one successful cartoon should be taken into account the image and colour effect equally to the importance of its content.
4.Students’ understanding and attitude against the DVD set 3, Human puppet DVD
4.1 For the DVD “The mean Raccoon“
a) Do you agree with the old lady’s behaviour in “The mean Raccoon“?
|1||She thinks that the fox will change its character when it is forgiven||7||19.00||It should not be gullible and easy to trust bad people but vigilance.||9||24.00|
|2||For the love and unselfishness||11||30.00||Love and forgiveness should not be placed in a wrong people and wicked people should have some reasonable lessons||16||43.00|
|3||Giving virtue lesson for children is the most important assignment in prep-school education||2||05.00|
The old lady is a kind hearted and tolerant person but her actions have not only caused serious catastrophe but also be bad for the fox. The dishonest and cruel fox considers the action of cheating and killing the old lady as its victory without any remorse. Thus, although her actions are originated from good will, the results are not what she expected.
Most of the students (67%) do not agree with the result of the story where the old lady with her kind heart forgives the fox and unexpectedly its cruelty so as to die because of the fox’s injustice. Most students agree not to place the trust and love in the wrong place and that devils should be taught a appropriate lesson (43%). This is a very interesting introduction of the film producer. It provide a outlook of life lesson regarding oriental thinking in terms of the goods and the evils under a modern analysis where people do not use their sensibility alone in judging the matters.
b) Comments on the rabbit’s actions against the fox:
|a.Cruel and methodical||1||03.00|
|b.Reasonable and methodical||2||05.00|
|c.Ingenious and perfect||23||62.00|
|d.All answers: a, b and c are correct||11||30.00|
The cartoon: “The mean Raccoon” is a serious fable lesson which has high education value. Through students’ assessment and point of view regarding the rabbit’s actions against the fox, their attitude and thinking are also revealed. Most students select the answer “Ingenious and perfect” when they talk about the rabbit. In another way, they agree with the lesson that the rabbit use to teach the fox regarding the honesty.
The character rabbit is contradictory with the character of the old lady in the beginning of the cartoon. Love cannot change the fox, and it is even an attribute to harm the old lady. Thus, the rabbit chooses another way. That is punishment. This is truly a deserving lesson for a cruel person.
The smallest number of students consider the rabbit’s actions are “Cruel and methodical”. Most of the student agree with the rabbit actions and show their determination against the cruelty and the evil.
c) Attitude against cartoon characters in the form of puppets?
Specifically in DVD set 3: which puppet impresses you most?
|The old man||9||24.00|
|The male fairy||25||68.00|
|The old lady||2||05.00|
Using puppet characters for cartoon has made a good impression on students. Most students like this type of cartoon, especially the character of the male fairy who has funny appearance. According to our statistical data, selection of a favourite character is not only based on the personality, virtue but also the appearance of such character. It can be seen in such a way that although the old man is honest and the main character of the story, students pay attention to the male fairy, the one with the most special appearance in the cartoon. This shows that cartoon characters if leaving any impression in the audience’s mind, they should have special and pretty features.
On the other hand, using puppets as cartoon characters is one way to help students to introduce to children a familiar and traditional type of art, puppetry.
Although there is yet favourable condition to collect data for comparison of cartoons and 3D cartoons, it can still be seen that the puppetry type of cartoon keeps attracting the audience.
5. Students’ point of view regarding the usage objective of the DVDs (question 16)
It is the same as our initial guess, if they can use the DVDs, the students will use them for the two main purposes teaching and learning. This is suitable with education practice. As most of these students will become teachers at kindergartens in the future. Currently, they are students. Hence, study is their main demand while in some years they will become pre-school teachers and thus, teaching will also become their main demand. Hence, using these three sets of DVDs for such two purposes is understandable. In fact, right from the beginning of watching, they did not watch the DVDs for relaxing purposes but as the future teachers of children. Hence, in the question regarding the purpose of DVD usage, for those students, recreation is the secondary purpose, accounting for only 05.00%.
On the other hand, the objectives of the Faculty of Pre-school education are training those who will directly teach the children in the future not the researchers. Hence, using the DVDs for studying also makes up minor portion (13.51%). With these three DVD sets, first the students can find out more about ways and methods of teaching children in Japan so as to adopt in their major (the learning objective), and then when they have the chance to put it into practice, they can use the acquired methods in the specific tasks or they can use such DVDs as visual illustrations for teaching activities in kindergartens (or teaching objective).
6. Student’s attitude against the DVD sets
We have surveyed students’ attitude against the DVD sets without any comparison among these three sets of DVDs as they all have their own meaning for certain usage.
DVD set 1: 20/37(54.05%) (like)
DVD set 2: 3/37(8.12%) (like)
DVD set 3: 11/37(29.73%) (like)
According to the above data, only in the DVD set 1, most of the students are interested in the quality of the cartoons, in the two later DVD sets, the percentage has decreased gradually. The main reasons for this is colours used are quite natural and lively cartoon about science but not inflexible. In DVD set 1, there is also the song for exercise practicing making the audience have the feeling of comfortable instead of tension while watching the DVDs. Besides, as most of the students do not have the capability to understand thoroughly the English version, they mainly base on the images to guess the content of the stories. The DVD set 1 is about science and so it is easy for them to understand via images and feel interested in this new content. The two other DVD sets have less effect as compared with the DVD set 1.
Surveying the students regarding each DVD set shows the aesthetic quality that each DVD set has obtained in the eyes of the audience. It can be considered as a good database to contribute to the completion of DVD production.
7.Students’ prediction about children’s attitude when they watch the three DVD sets?
|DVD set||No. of guess||Reasons||No.||%|
|DVD set 1||10||Many scenes are interesting and amazing||05||13.5|
|Suitable with psychology and thinking of children||03||08.1|
|Discover science in an understandable and life related way||07||18.9|
|Entertaining and stipulate creativity.||02||05.4|
|DVD set 2||16||Characters are of the same age so close to children’s life.||09||24.3|
|Nice and pretty characters||11||29.7|
|DVD set 3||17||This is a fairy tale world||11||29.7|
|Beautiful scenery with Japanese style||03||08.1|
|Intensive content with high value of education||06||16.2|
|Nice and pretty characters||07||18.9|
|Dramatic and emotional||02||05.4|
Number of predictions is not 37 expected. As expected, each student would have a selection of which DVD set that the children would like most. However, in fact, they are intelligent. They classified the children’s age into 3 groups: small children (MGB 3-4 years of age), medium children (MGN 4-5 years of age) and big children (MGL 5-6 years of age). Basing on psychology of the children, students predicted that children of MGB and MGN will like DVD sets 2 and 3 subject to the reasons stated above. Meanwhile, children of MGL will like DVD set 1 as they become more curious and eager to discover science. Thus, the number of predictions is not 37 but 43.
In general, most students think that DVD sets 2 and 3 will be preferred by the children as these DVDs are more suitable to the psychology of children in learning virtue lessons from fairy tales (DVD set 3: Human puppets) or watching cartoon characters of the same age with the children (DVD set 2: Rockie and hers friends). We consider these are objective and correct ideas, as most of the answers for the question which DVD set do the students like most is DVD set 1 (Science Discovery) whereas they predict the children’s interest in a different way instead of imposing their subjective idea on the thinking of children but basing on their major’s knowledge as well as the experience of children teaching that they have obtained. Hence, they would be able to provide suitable predictions.
This shows the audience of the DVD sets by JAMCO will be various. Each type of audience, depending on their psychology, demand and occupation find in these 3 DVD sets their own opinion regarding interests and usefulness of the DVDs.
B2. STUDY RESULT IN K60 & K61 (Wonderful Science and Pico Pico Pong) by Thao Thi Vu
1．The ability of students classified according to the disc contents:
Jamco’s DVDs have a clear distinction in terms of content. Therefore, we conducted a survey on whether or not the student has the ability to sort the contents, as follows:
|DVDs||Pairing the right content||Pairing wrong content||Pairing the right content||Pairing wrong content|
(Pico Pico Pong)
Basically, students graft with the right contents of the disk 1 as it is science content, they can be easily identified through image information. In contrast, in the two discs by using puppets, many conversations in English, which are difficult with students who have limited ability in foreign language, so students recognize the disc contents in confusion.
2.Perceptions and attitudes of students to the scientific discoveries disk (set 1)
This section investigated the awareness and attitudes of students to the scientific discoveries disk. Due to the nature of the contents of this drive is to help young children learn the knowledge of normal science, so the survey questions focused on how the filmmakers content organization gives young scientists like as well as any other time in movie scenes attractive for most students. The survey results are shown through the following tables:
2.1 Classification of the difficulty level of scientific content: normal science and intensive science
|No||Content||Normal science||Intensive science|
|No of answer||No of answer||No of answer||No of answer|
|1||The bodies of insects||43||40||1||2|
|2||Sunlight and Mirrors||20||16||25||35|
|3||Shadow and sun||41||46||3||0|
|4||How much do things weigh?||35||39||10||15|
|5||Which one is heaviest?||32||20||11||17|
|7||The wonders of magnets||0||0||45||1|
|8||Magnets of all kinds||6||0||36||2|
From the results of the survey we can see that students are very excited to show the science content. Most students are first divided into 5 content in the field of Life Sciences, 3 remaining contents of specialized scientific fields.
2.2 Which disks can be used in activities intended learning in preschool?
|Purpose of use||No of answer|
|Be familiar with the surroundings||27||46|
|Be familiar with elementary math symbols||23||40|
Students K61(3rd year) and K60(4th year), has been fully equipped with specialized methods departments preschool, so can easily see they already know how to use the discs are flexible functions in activities which are intended learning in preschool. The vast majority concentrated comments on the application of Be familiar with the surroundings activities, discovering science. There have creative ideas while highlighting other activities such as: Be familiar with elementary math symbols, Outdoor activities, games played, shaping activity. In particular, according to the survey, a commendable thing for 3rd year students (compared to 4th year) has proved to be creative when stating the contents of the disk used in forming operations.
2.3 Students judge appropriate content or inappropriate content if a small child watch DVD?
|appropriate content||inappropriate content|
|Part||No of answer||No of answer||Part||No of answer||No of answer|
|1.The bodies of insects||44||40||1.The bodies of insects||0||0|
|2.Sunlight and Mirrors||39||35||2.Sunlight and Mirrors||5||10|
|3.Shadow and sun||42||44||3.Shadow and sun||2||4|
|4.How much do things weigh?||44||44||4.How much do things weigh?||0||0|
|5.Which one is heaviest?||44||45||5.Which one is heaviest?||0||0|
|6.Electrical Circuits||0||0||6.Electrical Circuits||44||46|
|7.The wonders of magnets||38||20||7.The wonders of magnets||6||9|
|8.Magnets of all kinds||0||10||8.Magnets of all kinds||0||0|
In the assessment of most students I have reviewed the 6th segment of current movies shown in inappropriate movies, by reason expression unreasonable to host character – Takun used hands could not hold on power (whether by battery) – this can not be used to teach preschool children.
2.4 Students mentioned using disk which is suitable with children’s age
|Part||3-4 year old||4-5 year old||5-6 year old|
|1.The bodies of insects||23||33||4||5||18||20|
|2.Sunlight and Mirrors||5||9||22||19||11||14|
|3.Shadow and sun||26||30||10||10||4||8|
|4.How much do things weigh?||18||20||15||19||7||8|
|5.Which one is heaviest?||0||0||27||30||9||10|
|7.The wonders of magnets||2||9||7||8||19||21|
|8.Magnets of all kinds||0||0||17||20||12||15|
According to the survey, the scientific content is shown very well but it is harder to preschool children to access. Only normal science content can simply put into use in accordance with the child’s perception.
2.5 Which content segments students impressed with?
|Part||No answer from K60||No answer from K61|
|1.The bodies of insects||13||18|
|2.Sunlight and Mirrors||5||11|
|3.Shadow and sun||7||4|
|4.How much do things weigh?||1||7|
|5.Which one is heaviest?||1||9|
|7.The wonders of magnets||21||19|
|8.Magnets of all kinds||2||12|
The number of shares shown special interest of students spread out in many scientific content, this shows the wide universal disc, bring positive effects to the viewers. However, in terms of percentage, we can see no special content brings a higher effect a difference in discs.
3．Perceptions and attitudes of students for Pico Pico Pong disc (Set 2)
Students impressed with characters in the movie or not?
Partly due to their limited language proficiency in English, Students didn’t interest with the vast majority of disc in set 2 and that expressed that cartoon characters are not really attractive with viewers.
4．Students’s opinion about the purpose of using DVDs
|Purpose||No of answer||No of answer|
|Entertainment||2 (4.5%)||7 (15.3%)|
|Studying||20 (45.5%)||25 (54.3%)|
|Teaching||22 (50%)||10 (21.7%)|
|Total||44 (100%)||46 (100%)|
As the initial judgment of us, students will use DVDs in teaching and learning. This is consistent with realistic training because most of these students will be teachers. So they tend to use this disk into two purposes is understandable. The fact is, even while watching this disc, from the beginning they were not considered as a normal viewer for entertainment, but they did see with the mind as a future early childhood educators. Hence the question about the purpose of this disc, we find for students, entertainment purposes only secondary, accounting for 05:00%.
On the other hand, the goal of the Department of ECE training is basically training people who will direct child care and education, rather than training to researchers. So the purpose of using the disk to study only a minority (13:51%). With this disc, first of all students can learn and how to approach child care and education in Japan for use in their professional training (ie learning objectives), and later when opportunities to practice the profession, they can apply the method to acquire on their specific job or be able to use the disk as intuitive means to organize educational activities in kindergartens.
5．Student’s attitude to DVDs
We conducted a survey of student favorite on the disc with specific individual, not conducted comparing three set disc because each of them has own meaning.
Set 1: (80.5%) (like)
Set 2: (8.12%) (like)
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
– Students have right understanding about the type of each disc
– In each DVD set, students have understood fundamental matters of each DVD set in spite of language barrier.
– Almost all the students are interested in watching the DVDs, and the DVD set receiving the highest number of comment is the DVD set about science discovery
– According to understanding regarding theory and reality, students think that DVD sets 2 and 3 will attract the children’s interest.
– If the DVDs are used, the students will use them in 2 main purposes of teaching and learning. This is suitable to the training reality. As most of these students will become kindergarten teachers in the future. Currently, they are students. Hence, the demand for studying is fundamental. But in some years, they will become teachers at kindergartens where their teaching demand will become main demand. Thus, they have the intention to use these DVD sets for the two stated purposes and it is explainable.
– Students of pre-school education faculty hope to have more chances to watch DVDs by JAMCO so as they will be able to use them in their study.
– If these DVDs are dubbed with Vietnamese and inserted subtitles in English or Vietnamese, the audience will understand more thoroughly the messages that the producers would like to pass.
– The cooperation between JAMCO and Children Literature Centre (CLC) of Hanoi University of Education will become closer. The Centre will be the legal representative of JAMCO in Vietnam in introducing little audience their products. The Centre may provide suggestive ideas in terms of preparation for the cartoons’ film scripts.
– DVDs were shown in some kindergartens, children liked to watching Discovering Science DVDs and they could easily to draw some features which are characterized in DVDs
*Links are for posted items. It is possible that some items are not currently available or are being edited.
Vu Thi Thao, Dinh Thanh Tuyen
Vu Thi Thao
Lecturer, Department of Early childhood education, Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE), Vietnam.
Assistant for Scientific Research and International Cooperation, Department of Early childhood education, HNUE, Vietnam.
B.A. (Philology) 2007, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam.
M.A. (Linguistics and Literature) 2009, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam.
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Dinh Thanh Tuyen
Lecturer, Department of Language and Literature Education, Faculty of Early childhood Education, Hanoi National University of Education(HNUE), Vietnam.
B.A. (Philology) 2004, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam.
M.A. (Philology) 2006, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam.
PhD. (Philology) 2013, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam.
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